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Interactive Symptoms Viewer


Symptoms Viewer Tool

Take a tour through the signs and symptoms of PNH. Learn how they feel, how they happen in PNH, and what you can do about them.

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Symptoms Viewer:

To learn more about how PNH can affect your body, use your cursor to select different areas of the body diagram to view information about the specific signs and symptoms of PNH - or choose from the list below.

1 Areas of the body

Click the area of the body where you are experiencing signs or symptoms.

3 Stroke

A stroke can be very dangerous, so it's important to recognize the signs and symptoms. Seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of the following:

  • Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body
  • Sudden confusion or trouble understanding
  • Sudden trouble speaking
  • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
  • Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, or loss of balance or coordination
  • Sudden, severe headache with no known cause

A stroke can happen when a blood vessel in the brain guptures or a blood clot stops the flow of blood to the rain.

Reference: 1. American Stroke Association- Learn to recognize a stroke. Available at
http://www.strokeassociation.orgfpresenterjhtml?identifier=lO20.
Accessed Septemtxar 24, 2009.

While there are many ways a blood clot can occur. clots in people with PNH are in part a consequence of ongoing hemolysis. During ongoing hemolysis, excess free hemoglobin is released into the bloodstream where it depletes the natural level of nitric oxide in your body. Nitric oxide has several functions in a healthy body. One of them is to act as a natural anti—blood clotting agent.

Depending on its size and location, a blood clot can block the flow of blood in your veins and arteries, keeping the organs in your body from getting enough oxygen to function normally.

A blood clot in your brain is a medical emergency. it can lead to a stroke and therefore should be treated immediately.

References: 1. Hill A, Richards SJ, Hillmen P. Br J Haematol. 2007;137:181-192. 2. Brodsky RA. Blood Rev. 2008;22:653-711.

If you have PNH, speak with your doctor to see if you may be at risk for blood clots.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here .

3 Difficulty Swallowing

Many people with PNH report that it's difficult or even painful to swallow. When you can’t swallow, eating, drinking, and even talking are difficult and sometimes impossible. Difficulty swallowing could be a sign that something else is wrong, so if you are experiencing any of the following signs or symptoms, you should speak with your doctor:

  • Having problems getting food or liquids down on the first try
  • Gagging, choking, or coughing when you swallow
  • Having food or liquids come back up through your throat, mouth, or nose after you swallow
  • Having pain or pressure in your chest
  • Losing weight because you aren’t able to eat or drink enough

During ongoing hemolysis, excess free hemoglobin is released into the bloodstream where it depletes the natural level of nitric oxide in your body. Nitric oxide has several functions in a healthy body. One of them is regulating smooth muscle function.

The smooth muscles throughout your body tighten instead of relax if your body doesn't have enough nitric oxide. When this occurs in the muscles lining your esophagus, swallowing can become difficult or painful, a common symptom of PNH.

References: 1. Hill A, Richards SJ, Hillmen P. Br J Haematol. 2007;137:181-192. 2. Hill A, Rother RP, Hillmen P. Haemato/ogica. 2005;90(online):e111-e113.

If it is difficult or painful to swallow, tell your doctor. Remember to always speak with your healthcare team about any signs and symptoms that you are experiencing.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here .

3 Shortness of Breath

Shortness of breath is simply characterized as discomfort when breathing. Shortness of breath may be experienced as:

  • Feeling as though you’re not getting enough air even though you’re trying to take a deep breath
  • Being unable to catch your breath, even though you haven’t exercised at all
  • Wheezing and/or shallow breathing
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Chest pain, as if it's being squeezed tightly

During ongoing hemolysis, excess free hemoglobin is released into the bloodstream where it depletes the natural level of nitric oxide in your body. Nitric oxide has several functions in a healthy body, including regulating smooth muscle function and acting as an anti—blood clotting agent.

When your body doesn't have enough nitric oxide, the smooth muscles of the vessels in your lungs may tighten instead of relax, making it more difficult to breath.

Nitric oxide depletion is one of the effects of ongoing hemolysis that increase the risk of blood clots. Collectively, microscopic clots can damage important organs in your body, such as your lungs. This damage can lead to pulmonary hypertension, which increases the blood pressure in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. Nearly half of all people with PNH have signs of pulmonary hypertension.

References: 1. Hill A, Richards SJ, Hillmen P. Br J Haematol. 2007;l37:18l—192. 2. Brodsky RA. Blood Rev. 2008;22:65-74. 3. Hill A, Rother RP, Wang X, et al. Blood. 2008;l12: Abstract 486.

If you experience any shortness of breath — especially if you haven't exercised or performed any strenuous activity — speak with your doctor about it. Remember to always speak with your doctor about any signs and symptoms you may experience.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here .

3 Lung Damage

Lung damage is very serious. It can lead to other problems, such as lung failure. If you experience any of the following signs or symptoms, speak with your doctor immediately:

  • Shortness of breath (more so than you normally would for any particular activity)
  • Feeling extremely tired
  • Dry cough
  • Discomfort or trouble breathing when lying on your back

Pulmonarv hvpertension is among the more urgent problems that can affect people with PNH. Nearly half of the people with PNH have signs of pulmonary hypertension. The symptoms of pulmonary hypertension include:

  • Feeling so tired that you can barely function
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting and weakness
  • Ankle and extremity swelling

References: 1. Hill A, Rother RP. Wang X, et al. Blood. 2008;112: Abstract 486.

During ongoing hemolysis, excess free hemoglobin is released into the bloodstream where it depletes the natural level of nitric oxide in your body. Nitric oxide has several functions in a healthy body. One of them is to act as a natural anti—blood clotting agent.

Nitric oxide depletion is one of the effects of ongoing hemolysis that increase the risk of blood clots. Collectively, microscopic clots can damage important organs in your body, such as your lungs. Shortness of breath is a common symptom of lung damage.

In addition, pulmonary hypertension, which reduces blood flow to the lungs, can be linked to low levels of nitric oxide in your body. Nearly half of all people with PNH have signs of pulmonary hypertension.

Lung damage is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention.

References: 1. Hill A, Richards SJ, Hillmen P. Br J Haematol. 2007;l37:18l—192. 2. Brodsky RA. Blood Rev. 2008;22:65-74. 3. Hill A. Rother RP, Wang X. et al. Blood. 2008;112: Abstract 486.

If it is difficult or painful to breathe, seek medical attention immediately. Having trouble breathing can be a sign of a more serious problem, so make sure to always speak with your doctor about any signs and symptoms that you have.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here .

3 Heart Attack

Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, but most start slowly, with mild pain or discomfort. The pain may be felt in only one part of your body or it can move from your chest to your arms, shoulder, neck, teeth, jaw, belly area, or back. It may feel like a heavy pressure — like something is sitting on your chest—or a squeezing sensation — as if a band is tightening around you. Other symptoms include*:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Feeling nauseated or vomiting
  • Feeling anxious
  • Dry cough
  • Fainting
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Palpitations (feeling as though your heart is beating too fast)
  • Sweating, which may be extreme

If you are experiencing chest pain or any of the symptoms listed above, seek medical attention immediately.

*American Heart Association guidelines.

References: 1. American Heart Association. Available at http://www.americanheart.org/presentenjhtml?identifier=3053. Accessed September 24, 2009.

During ongoing hemolysis, excess free hemoglobin is released into the bloodstream where it depletes the natural level of nitric oxide in your body. Nitric oxide has several functions in a healthy body. One of them is to act as a natural anti—blood clotting agent.

Nitric oxide depletion is one of the effects of ongoing hemolysis that increase the risk of blood clots. A blood clot in a blood vessel leading to the heart or in the muscle tissue of the heart could lead to a heart attack. In very severe cases, anemia may also contribute to a heart attack.

If you are experiencing chest pain, seek medical attention immediately.

References: 1. Hill A, Richards SJ, Hillmen P. Br J Haematol. 2007;137:181-192. 2. Brodsky RA. Blood Rev. 2008;22:65-74.

If you have had a heart attack or have been told you are at risk for one, consult with your doctor about options to keep your heart healthy. Remember to always speak with your doctor about any signs and symptoms you may experience, whether heart-related or not.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here .

3 Abdominal Pain

Abdominal pain can be sharp or feel like cramping, as if your stomach is being squeezed. The pain may be a minor annoyance or become disabling. While the pain may feel as if it’s centered in your stomach, the cause of the pain could be coming from the tissues or organs surrounding your stomach. Although abdominal pain is a common symptom of PNH, it could be a sign of a more serious problem.

During ongoing hemolysis, excess free hemoglobin is released into the bloodstream where it depletes the natural level of nitric oxide in your body. Nitric oxide has several functions in a healthy body. One of them is regulating smooth muscle function. It also acts as a natural anti—blood clotting agent.

The smooth muscles throughout your body tighten instead of relax if your body doesn't have enough nitric oxide. When this happens in the muscles lining your stomach and digestive system, constriction or tightening of those muscles can occur. This can result in cramps or abdominal pain, a common symptom of PNH.

Another consequence of nitric oxide depletion is an increase in the risk of blood clots. Microscopic clots in your intestines and stomach can lead to abdominal pain, a common symptom in people with PNH. These clots, depending on their size and location, can block flow in the many vessels that supply the digestive system with blood. A clot in the area that connects your intestines to your abdomen is known as a mesenteric clot.

In some people with PNH, abdominal pain may be a sign of liver damage.

References: 1. Hill A, Richards SJ, Hillmen P. Br J Haematol. 2007;137:181-192. 2. Brodsky RA. Blood Rev. 2008;22:65-74. 3. Brodsky RA. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005:1119-427.

If you experience abdominal pain, tell your doctor. Although it may seem minor or easy to ignore at times, abdominal pain may be a sign of a more serious health problem — such as liver damage — in PNH. Remember to always speak with your doctor about any signs and symptoms you may experience.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here

3 Erectile Dysfunction

Men with PNH may experience erectile dysfunction. Frequent erectile dysfunction can cause emotional and relationship problems, as well as contribute to feelings of frustration and low self—esteem. Erectile dysfunction is a common symptom in men with PNH.

References: 1. Hill A, Richards SJ, Hillmen P. Br J Haematol. 2007;137:18l—192.

During ongoing hemolysis, excess free hemoglobin is released into the bloodstream where it depletes the natural level of nitric oxide in your body. Nitric oxide has several functions in a healthy body. One of them is regulating smooth muscle function.

When your body doesn't have enough nitric oxide, the smooth muscles throughout your body tighten instead of relax. In men with PNH, this restricts blood flow to the penis, making it difficult—or even impossible—to get an erection.

References: 1. Hill A, Richards SJ, Hillmen P. Br J Haematol.ME’>a 2007;137:181-192.

If you experience erectile dysfunction, speak with your doctor about it at your next visit. Even though it may be difficult or embarrassing to discuss, the inability to obtain or maintain an erection may be a sign of a more serious health problem in PNH. Remember to always speak with your doctor about any signs and symptoms you may experience.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here

3 Kidney Damage

Many people who experience kidney damage don't know it, because the early signs can be very subtle. These can include*:

  • Changes in urination
  • Swelling
  • Fatigue
  • Skin rash or itching
  • Metallic taste in your mouth
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Shortness of breath
  • Feeling cold
  • Dizziness
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Leg or side pain

*National Kidney Foundation guidelines.

Reference: 1. National Kidney Foundation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD). Available at http://www.kidney.org/kidneyDisease/ckd/index.cfm. Accessed September 24, 2009.

In healthy people, low levels of hemolysis naturally occur, releasing small amounts of free hemoglobin into the bloodstream. Your kidneys can clean normal amounts of free hemoglobin from your blood. However, in people with PNH, hemolysis is ongoing and can release large amounts of free hemoglobin. Over time free hemoglobin damages your kidneys and in some cases may cause chronic kidney disease. 64% of people with PNH have chronic kidney disease, which, if left untreated, can lead to kidney failure.

References: 1. Hill A, Richards SJ, Hillmen P. Br J Haematol. 2007;137:181-192. 2. Hillmen P, Elebute MO, Kelly R, et al. Blood. 2007;11O: Abstract 3678.

If you have had kidney damage or have been told you are at risk for it, consult with your doctor about options to keep your kidneys healthy. Remember to always speak with your doctor about any signs and symptoms you may experience.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here .

3 Liver Damage

Early signs of liver damage may be difficult to detect. Only when damage to the liver has progressed to the point of becoming serious do symptoms become noticeable. Some common symptoms of liver damage are:

  • Pain in the lower right chest region
  • A noticeable hard lump under the skin below the rib cage on the right
  • Visible yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes (jaundice)

During ongoing hemolysis, excess free hemoglobin is released into the bloodstream where it depletes the natural level of nitric oxide in your body. Nitric oxide has several functions in a healthy body. One of them is to act as a natural anti—blood clotting agent.

Nitric oxide depletion is one of the effects of ongoing hemolysis that increase the risk of blood clots. Microscopic clots in the liver, depending on their size and location, can block blood flow in vessels that supply the liver with blood. A clot in the major blood vessel of the liver (hepatic vein) is known as Budd-Chiari syndrome.

Your liver helps remove toxins by breaking down and/or releasing potentially harmful products made by your body. A blood clot may prevent your liver from working properly, potentially causing damage to vital organs and other serious health problems.

References: 1. Hill A, Richards SJ, Hillmen P. Br J Haematol. 2007;137:181-192. 2. Brodsky RA. Blood Rev. 2008;22:65-74. 3. Brodsky RA. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005:1119-427.

lf you have had liver damage or have been told you are at risk for it, consult with your doctor about ways to help keep your liver healthy. Remember to always speak with your doctor about any signs and symptoms you may expenence.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here .

3 Hemoglobinuria (dark-colored urine)

Experiencing hemoglobinuria (dark—colored urine) can be upsetting. The color may range from a dark brown/cola color to a deep red/blood color to a lighter tea color. Typically, hemoglobinuria will be most noticeable in the morning, and will clear as the day progresses. Many people have also said that they experience disabling fatigue (tiredness) during periods of hemoglobinuria.

In healthy people, low levels of hemolysis naturally occur, releasing small amounts of free hemoglobin into the bloodstream. Your kidneys can clear normal amounts of free hemoglobin from your blood. However, in people with PNH, hemolysis is an ongoing process that can result in the release of large amounts of free hemoglobin. This can overwhelm your kidneys and may make them unable to filter waste materials from your blood and into your urine, resulting in abnormally dark urine.

The change in urine color can happen at any time and can be most dramatic when you wake up in the morning. While only about 1 in 4 people with PNH will present with dark—colored urine at diagnosis, most people with PNH will experience it at some point in their disease.

Even if you have not experienced dark-colored urine, hemolysis is always taking place in people with PNH. In fact, this excessive and continual hemolysis is the main cause of major health problems in PNH.

References: 1. Rother RP, Bell L. Hillmen P, Gladwin MT. JAMA. 2005;293:1653-1662. 2. Dacie JV, Lewis SM. Ser Haematol. 1972;5:3-23. 3. Parker C, Omine M, Richards 8, et al; for the International PNH Interest Group. Blood. 2005;106:3699-3709. 4. Brodsky RA. Blood Rev. 2008;22:65—74.

If you experience hemoglobinuria, tell your doctor immediately. Having dark-colored urine may be an indicator of other more serious health issues related to your PNH, including some that you may not immediately feel. Remember to always speak with your doctor about any signs and symptoms you may experience.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here .

3 Deep Vein Thrombosis

If you have a deep vein thrombosis (blood clot deep in your leg), you may not know it. A deep vein thrombosis is potentially very dangerous, but only about half of people with a deep vein thrombosis have observable symptoms. Deep vein thrombosis symptoms may include:

  • Swelling of the leg or along a vein in the leg
  • Pain or tenderness in the leg, which you may feel only when standing or walking
  • Warmth in the area of the leg that's swollen or in pain
  • Red or discolored skin on the leg

If left untreated, a deep vein thrombosis may dislodge itself, travel through the bloodstream, and block an artery in your lung, a serious condition known as a pulmonary embolism. Symptoms of a pulmonary embolism include:

  • Unexplained shortness of breath
  • Pain with deep breathing
  • Coughing up blood

Deep vein thromboses and pulmonary embolisms are serious medical conditions that require immediate medical attention.

During ongoing hemolysis, excess free hemoglobin is released into the bloodstream where it depletes the natural level of nitric oxide in your body. Nitric oxide has several functions in a healthy body. One of them is to act as a natural anti—blood clotting agent.

Nitric oxide depletion is one of the effects of ongoing hemolysis that increase the risk of blood clots. A deep vein thrombosis in your leg could be dangerous because it may break off and move through the bloodstream, possibly blocking blood flow to the lungs (pulmonary embolism), heart, or brain. In addition, these clots could damage the lungs or lead to a heart attack or stroke.

Deep vein thromboses and pulmonary embolisms are serious medical conditions that require Immediate medical attention.

References: 1. Hill A, Richards SJ, Hillmen P. Br J Haematol. 2007;137:181—192. 2. Brodsky RA. Blood Rev. 2008;22:65-74. 3. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

If you feel pain in your leg, tell your doctor about it immediately—even if it seems minor or it is easily ignored. A deep vein thrombosis is a serious medical emergency. If you are at risk for developing a clot, consult with your doctor about how to minimize this risk. Remember to always speak with your doctor about any signs and symptoms you may experience.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here .

3 Diminished Quality of Life

“Diminished quality of life" refers to a number of issues that may affect your ability to work and enjoy life. These can include:

  • Trouble starting or finishing things because you're tired
  • Needing to sleep during the day
  • Needing help doing usual activities
  • Limiting social activities because you're tired
  • Fainting
  • Trouble participating in activities
  • Trouble sleeping

Diminished quality of life is very common in patients with PNH; in fact, 76% of people with PNH said they were forced to modify their normal daily activities to manage their PNH. Being unable to participate in your routine activities may mean something more serious is happening with your PNH.

References: 1. Meyers G, Weitz I, Lamy T, et al. Blood. 2007;110: Abstract 3683.

During ongoing hemolysis, some or all of your red blood cells are destroyed, which can result in serious health consequences. These consequences can include life-threatening blood clots, debilitating fatigue (tiredness), kidney problems, breathing problems, and pain. Dealing with all of these aspects of PNH can keep you from working and enjoying your life with family and friends.

References: 1. Hill A, Richards SJ, Hillmen P. Br J Haematol. 2007;137:181-192. 2. Rother RP, Bell L. Hillmen P, Gladwin MT. JAMA. 2005;293:1653-1662.

PNH symptoms can change over time, and are different from person to person. Always let your healthcare team know how you’re feeling. It's an important part of managing your PNH.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here .

3 Tiredness (Fatigue)

Fatigue is the feeling of extreme tiredness or weakness that can make it difficult for you to perform your normal everyday activities. It affects everyone differently. You may not be able to get out of bed, or may feel so tired that you have little control over your life. Many people with PNH report feeling exhausted and unable to work or participate in activities with family and friends. Extreme fatigue often is accompanied by pain or an overall achy feeling in your body.

Ongoing hemolysis destroys some or all of your red blood cells — making them unable to properly carry oxygen to your body’s organs and tissues — and may result in anemia (not having enough red blood cells). This can cause fatigue (tiredness).

In PNH, disabling fatigue — while sometimes related to anemia — can also be caused by an unknown mechanism associated with hemolysis. Recent research shows that the severity of fatigue in PNH is often out of proportion to the degree of anemia. In fact, clinical studies have shown that controlling chronic hemolysis can improve fatigue independent of improvement in hemoglobin level (a measure of anemia).

Other bone marrow disorders and iron deficiency may also increase the severity of fatigue in PNH.

References: 1. Rother RP, Bell L. Hillmen P, Gladwin MT. JAMA. 2005;293:1653-1662. 2. Hill A, Muus P, Dlihrsen U, et al. Haematologica. 2008;93(suppl 1):359. Abstract 0903. 3. Parker 0. Omine M, Richards 8, et al; for the International PNH Interest Group. Blood. 2005;106:3699-3709.

If you find that you're frequently tired and it’s affecting your ability to work or enjoy life, make certain to tell your doctor about it at your next visit. Your physician may measure your LDH to gauge the degree of hemolysis, which has also been associated with fatigue in people with PNH. Your fatigue may be a sign of other more serious health issues related to your PNH, including some that you may not immediately feel. Remember to always speak with your doctor about any signs and symptoms you may experience.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here .

3 Anemia

Anemia is a condition in which you don’t have enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen to the body. At first, anemia can be so mild it goes unnoticed; however, symptoms may increase as anemia worsens. Symptoms may vary depending on the cause of your anemia and can include:

  • Fatigue
  • Pale skin
  • Fast or irregular heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Dizziness
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Headache

Anemia can result from multiple causes. In PNH, ongoing hemolysis destroys or damages some or all of your red blood cells, leaving them unable to properly carry oxygen to your body’s organs and tissues. This is known as hemolytic anemia.

However, some people with PNH may also have anemia caused by other medical conditions such as aplastic anemia or myelodysplastic syndromes. While the anemia of PNH is caused by some or all of the body’s red blood cells being destroyed, the anemia of aplastic anemia or myelodysplastic syndromes results from not producing enough red blood cells. PNH, in combination with other bone marrow disorders, may add to the degree of anemia you may experience. Anemia, regardless of the cause, may result in severe fatigue (tiredness), leaving you feeling exhausted and unable to engage in your normal daily activities.

Recent research shows that the severity of fatigue in PNH is often out of proportion to the degree of anemia. in PNH, it's important to remember that it may not solely be the anemia that is causing you to feel tired, but also an unknown mechanism associated with PNH believed to be linked to hemolysis.

References: 1. Brodsky RA. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005:419-427. 2. Dunn DE, Tanawattanacharoen P, Boccuni P, et al. Ann intern Med. 1999;131:401-408. 3. Ishikawa T. Tohyama K. Nakao S, et al. Int J Hematol. 2007;86:150-157. 4. Parker C, Omine M. Richards 8, et al; for the International PNH Interest Group. Blood. 2005;106:3699-3709. 5. Hill A, Muus P, Dilhrsen U, et al. Haematologica. 2008;93(suppl 1):359. Abstract 0903. 6. Brodsky RA, Young NS, Antonioli E, et al. Blood. 2008;111:1840-1847.

If you suffer from anemia, consult with your doctor about options to keep you healthier—and help you live your life to the fullest. Your doctor may measure your hemoglobin to find out the severity of your anemia. Your physician may also measure your LDH to gauge the degree of hemolysis, which has also been associated with fatigue in people with PNH. By monitoring and knowing the cause of your anemia, your doctor will be better able to treat it. Remember to always speak with your doctor about any signs and symptoms you may experience.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here .

3 Pain

The following common types of pain can not only be disabling to your physical well—being, but also can affect your ability to work and enjoy life with family and friends:

  • Pain associated with fatigue
  • Painful swallowing
  • Abdominal pain
  • Back pain
  • Chest pain
  • Leg pain
  • Headaches

In PNH, ongoing hemolysis can cause blood clots, anemia, and impaired smooth muscle function. Each of these symptoms can cause pain throughout the body. Due to the variability and progressive nature of the disease, people with PNH can experience varying amounts of pain, from mild to disabling, depending on the cause of the pain.

References: 1. Hill A, Richards SJ, Hillmen P. Br J Haematol. 2007;l37:18l—192. 2. Brodsky RA. Blood Rev. 2008;22:65-74.

You don’t have to live with pain. Speak with your doctor to determine the cause of your pain; he or she can help you manage it. Remember to always speak with your doctor about any signs and symptoms you may experience, including any pain, even if it isn’t disabling.

For more on how to speak with your doctor, click here .


Take a closer look at PNH with the PNH Patient Brochure. Download it for free, and take it with you wherever you go.

Do you know the main cause of all the symptoms associated with PNH? Find out from Dr. Jack Goldberg, a blood and blood diseases specialist.